Think the Israel thing was started in about 1100 BC. Then the Assyrians took over in 722 BC. Then the Babylonians in 586 BC. Then the Persians. Then a lot if little Greek cult types. Then the Romans in 63 BC. Then the Greco-Romans and the Samaritans ( who were not particularly good, ergo the oxymoron of the “good” Samaritan). Then the Christians, the Samaritans again, the Persians, a short lived Jewish empire again, then the Byzantine Empire. Then the Arabs, who warred among different sects for control, which changed hands back and forth for a couple hundred years. Then the Turks took over and held it until the British conquered them in 1920 and partitioned everything up.
It’s been downhill from there.
I would posit that other empires and tribes rose and fell in the area before the Jewish one in 1100. Just don’t have records going back further. I expect that the natural “us versus them” mentality that lives in humans arose every time a group got to big and created an impetus to fight and split. This probably conferred a survival advantage in the 100,000 years before agriculture.